Ecology and distribution of Frullania bolanderi in Europe
Kåre Arnstein LyeK. A. Lye (email@example.com), Dept. of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, PO Box 5003, Sørhellinga, Høgskolevegen 12, NO-1432 Ås, Norway.
Frullania bolanderi is in Europe known from Norway, Sweden and Russia only. The ecology of F. bolanderi in 16 Norwegian localities is described in some detail, while its ecology in Sweden and Russia is given from literature. Frullania bolanderi has a wide ecological amplitude growing on many different trees, often in shady ravines near streams and rivers, but sometimes in only slightly undulating forest, more rarely in an open landscape with scattered trees only. At the beginning of the year 2000 Frullania bolanderi was known from one locality in Sweden, three localities in Norway and about five localities in European Russia. However, during the years 2000–2013 numerous new localities were discovered and this hepatic is now known from about 150 localities in Norway [but only about 60 if merely localities more than 1 km apart are considered], three in Sweden and about 25 in European Russia. In the past F. bolanderi was considered as strongly endangered (EN) or critically endangered (CR) in Norway and Sweden, but the many new records have resulted in it being downgraded to a lower conservation category in Norway, i.e. vulnerable (VU) according to the newest Norwegian redlist. The plant is also a member of the European redlist, but should perhaps be removed from this list.